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1. And the children of Israel journeyed from Raamses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides the little ones and their wives.
2. Also a mixed multitude went up with them, and flocks and herds, even much cattle.
3. And the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in the land of Egypt in hard labor, was two hundred and ten years.
4. And at the end of two hundred and ten years, the Lord brought forth the children of Israel from Egypt with a strong hand.
5. And the children of Israel traveled from Egypt and from Goshen and from Raamses, and encamped in Succoth on the fifteenth day of the first month.
6. And the Egyptians buried all their first born whom the Lord had smitten, and all the Egyptians buried their slain for three days.
7. And the children of Israel traveled from Succoth and encamped in Ethom, at the end of the wilderness.
8. And on the third day after the Egyptians had buried their first born, many men rose up from Egypt and went after Israel to make them return to Egypt, for they repented that they had sent the Israelites away from their servitude.
9. And one man said to his neighbor, Surely Moses and Aaron spoke to Pharaoh, saying, We will go a three days' journey in the wilderness and sacrifice to the Lord our God.
10. Now therefore let us rise up early in the morning and cause them to return, and it shall be that if they return with us to Egypt to their masters, then shall we know that there is faith in them, but if they will not return, then will we fight with them, and make them come back with great power and a strong hand.
11. And all the nobles of Pharaoh rose up in the morning, and with them about seven hundred thousand men, and they went forth from Egypt on that day, and came to the place where the children of Israel were.
12. And all the Egyptians saw and behold Moses and Aaron and all the children of Israel were sitting before Pi-hahiroth, eating and drinking and celebrating the feast of the Lord.
13. And all the Egyptians said to the children of Israel, Surely you said, We will go a journey for three days in the wilderness and sacrifice to our God and return.
14. Now therefore this day makes five days since you went, why do you not return to your masters?
15. And Moses and Aaron answered them, saying, Because the Lord our God has testified in us, saying, You shall no more return to Egypt, but we will betake ourselves to a land flowing with milk and honey, as the Lord our God had sworn to our ancestors to give to us.
16. And when the nobles of Egypt saw that the children of Israel did not hearken to them, to return to Egypt, they girded themselves to fight with Israel.
17. And the Lord strengthened the hearts of the children of Israel over the Egyptians, that they gave them a severe beating, and the battle was sore upon the Egyptians, and all the Egyptians fled from before the children of Israel, for many of them perished by the hand of Israel.
18. And the nobles of Pharaoh went to Egypt and told Pharaoh, saying, The children of Israel have fled, and will no more return to Egypt, and in this manner did Moses and Aaron speak to us.
19. And Pharaoh heard this thing, and his heart and the hearts of all his subjects were turned against Israel, and they repented that they had sent Israel; and all the Egyptians advised Pharaoh to pursue the children of Israel to make them come back to their burdens.
20. And they said each man to his brother, What is this which we have done, that we have sent Israel from our servitude?
21. And the Lord strengthened the hearts of all the Egyptians to pursue the Israelites, for the Lord desired to overthrow the Egyptians in the Red Sea.
22. And Pharaoh rose up and harnessed his chariot, and he ordered all the Egyptians to assemble, not one man was left excepting the little ones and the women.
23. And all the Egyptians went forth with Pharaoh to pursue the children of Israel, and the camp of Egypt was an exceedingly large and heavy camp, about ten hundred thousand men.
24. And the whole  of this camp went and pursued the children of Israel to bring them back to Egypt, and they reached them encamping by the Red Sea.
25. And the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and beheld all the Egyptians pursuing them, and the children of Israel were greatly terrified at them, and the children of Israel cried to the Lord.
26. And on account of the Egyptians, the children of Israel divided themselves into four divisions, and they were divided in their opinions, for they were afraid of the Egyptians, and Moses spoke to each of them.
27. The first division was of the children of Reuben, Simeon, and Issachar, and they resolved to cast themselves into the sea, for they were exceedingly afraid of the Egyptians.
28. And Moses said to them, Fear not, stand still and see the salvation of the Lord which He will effect this day for you.
29. The second division was of the children of Zebulun, Benjamin and Naphtali, and they resolved to go back to Egypt with the Egyptians.
30. And Moses said to them, Fear not, for as you have seen the Egyptians this day, so shall you see them no more forever.
31. The third division was of the children of Judah and Joseph, and they resolved to go to meet the Egyptians to fight with them.
32. And Moses said to them, Stand in your places, for the Lord will fight for you, and you shall remain silent.
33. And the fourth division was of the children of Levi, Gad, and Asher, and they resolved to go into the midst of the Egyptians to confound them, and Moses said to them, Remain in your stations and fear not, only call unto the Lord that he may save you out of their hands.
34. After this Moses rose up from amidst the people, and he prayed to the Lord and said,
35. O Lord God of the whole earth, save now thy people whom thou didst bring forth from Egypt, and let not the Egyptians boast that power and might are theirs.
36. So the Lord said to Moses, Why dost thou cry unto me?  Speak to the children of Israel that they shall proceed, and do thou stretch out thy rod upon the sea and divide it, and the children of Israel shall pass through it.
37. And Moses did so, and he lifted up his rod upon the sea and divided it.
38. And the waters of the sea were divided into twelve parts, and the children of Israel passed through on foot, with shoes, as a man would pass through a prepared road.
39. And the Lord manifested to the children of Israel his wonders in Egypt and in the sea by the hand of Moses and Aaron.
40. And when the children of Israel had entered the sea, the Egyptians came after them, and the waters of the sea returned upon them, and they all sank in the water, and not one man was left excepting Pharaoh, who gave thanks to the Lord and believed in him, therefore the Lord did not cause him to perish at that time with the Egyptians.
41. And the Lord ordered an angel to take him from amongst the Egyptians, who cast him upon the land of Ninevah and he reigned over it for a long time.
42. And on that day the Lord saved Israel from the hand of Egypt, and all the children of Israel saw that the Egyptians had perished, and they beheld the great hand of the Lord, in what he had performed in Egypt and in the sea.
43. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, on the day when the Lord caused the Egyptians to fall before them.
44. And all Israel sang in concert, saying, I will sing to the Lord for He is greatly exalted, the horse and his rider has he cast into the sea; behold it is written in the book of the law of God.
45. After this the children of Israel proceeded on their journey, and encamped in Marah, and the Lord gave to the children of Israel statutes and judgments in that place in Marah, and the Lord commanded the children of Israel to walk in all his ways and to serve him.
46. And they journeyed from Marah and came to Elim, and in Elim were twelve springs of water and seventy date trees, and the children encamped there by the waters.
47. And they journeyed from Elim and came to the wilderness of Sin, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departure from Egypt.
48. At that time the Lord gave the manna to the children of Israel to eat, and the Lord caused food to rain from heaven for the children of Israel day by day.
49. And the children of Israel ate the manna for forty years, all the days that they were in the wilderness, until they came to the land of Canaan to possess it.
50. And they proceeded from the wilderness of Sin and encamped in Alush.
51. And they proceeded from Alush and encamped in Rephidim.
52. And when the children of Israel were in Rephidim, Amalek the son of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, the brother of Zepho, came to fight with Israel.
53. And he brought with him eight hundred and one thousand men, magicians and conjurers, and he prepared for battle with Israel in Rephidim.
54.And they carried on a great and severe battle against Israel, and the Lord delivered Amalek and his people into the hands of Moses and the children of Israel, and into the hand of Joshua, the son of Nun, the Ephrathite, the servant of Moses.
55. And the children of Israel smote Amalek and his people at the edge of the sword, but the battle was very sore upon the children of Israel.
56. And the Lord said to Moses, Write this thing as a memorial for thee in a book, and place it in the hand of Joshua, the son of Nun, thy servant, and thou shalt command the children of Israel, saying, When thou shalt come to the land of Canaan, thou shalt utterly efface the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.
57. And Moses did so, and he took the book and wrote upon it these words, saying,
58. Remember what Amalek has done to thee in the road when thou wentest forth from Egypt.
59. Who met thee in the road and smote thy rear, even those that were feeble behind thee when thou wast faint and weary.
60.Therefore it shall be when the Lord thy God shall have given thee rest from all thine enemies round about in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven, thou shalt not forget it.
61. And the king who shall have pity on Amalek, or upon his memory or upon his seed, behold I will require it of him, and I will cut him off from amongst his people.
62. And Moses wrote all these things in a book, and he enjoined the children of Israel respecting all these matters.

Pharaoh’s salvation
Note verses 39 to 41 of Jasher 81:
39. And the Lord manifested to the children of Israel his wonders in Egypt and in the sea by the hand of Moses and Aaron.
40. And when the children of Israel had entered the sea, the Egyptians came after them, and the waters of the sea returned upon them, and they all sank in the water, and not one man was left excepting Pharaoh, who gave thanks to the Lord and believed in him, therefore the Lord did not cause him to perish at that time with the Egyptians.
41. And the Lord ordered an angel to take him from amongst the Egyptians, who cast him upon the land of Nineveh and he reigned over it for a long time.
This is verified in other writings of the Jewish people.  In the books called “The Legends of the Jews” by Louis Ginzberg, in Volume III, we can read:“...Thus all the Egyptians were drowned. Only one was spared - Pharaoh himself. When the children of Israel raised their voices to sing a song of praise to God at the shores of the Red Sea, Pharaoh heard it as he was jostled hither and thither by the billows, and he pointed his finger heavenward, and called out: "I believe in Thee, O God! Thou art righteous, and I and My people are wicked, and I acknowledge now that there is no god in the world beside Thee."... he installed him as king of the great city of Nineveh, ...it was Pharaoh who, seized by fear and terror, covered himself with sackcloth, and sat in ashes, and with his own mouth made proclamation and published this decree through Nineveh: "Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste anything; let them not feed nor drink water; for I know there is no god beside Him in all the world, all His words are truth, and all His judgements are true and faithful."

The salvation of Pharaoh is a shock to many, and yet, it is consistent with the mercy of God to save any who call out with repentance, in faith of His offer of salvation.
The Bible does not contradict this additional information.

Exodus 14:26-28 (ASV)
26 And Jehovah said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and Jehovah overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the host of Pharaoh that went in after them into the sea; there remained not so much as one of them.
The Bible says that of the ‘host of Pharaoh’ there was not one of them remaining.  Yet, it does not say that Pharaoh died in those waters.
Another verse referring to this event is in Psalms:
Psalm 136:15 (ASV)
15 But overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea; For his loving kindness endureth for ever:
The word ‘overthrew’ is “nāʿar” which is a primitive root (H5287), that refers to the rustling of the mane of a lion, accompanying a the lion's roar. It is translated in the KJV as “shake, shake out, overthrow, toss to and fro, shake off'
Thus, it cannot be constrained to mean that Pharaoh was killed, but suffered the same demonstration of the power of God.  Though multitudes of the Egyptian host died, the one that cried out in repentance, and in faith in the true God, is granted salvation.

People of today like to think that God does not judge sin, but God does, and God's love would not allow His people to suffer the indignation of slavery without a great penalty to be given to its instigators.  God loves the Egyptians, so He offers them many chances to repent, and to make things right with Israel.  But God let the Egyptians, as well as the Israelites, know that He is God.  The covenant of God bound Him to judge sin within the camp of Israel, but also to judge any who would hurt His people.
Every time God gave Pharaoh another chance, Pharaoh would harden his heart. God would not have sent other plagues had Pharaoh not have been so stubbornly rebellious.  Some question why God hardened his heart. The same sun that warms the earth, also hardens the dry earth. The warm sun that melts the ice, also hardens the clay. God's love and conviction is the same toward all, but the difference is how we receive it.
Pharaoh represents all that oppresses mankind from without. Israel's  slavery and bondage represents all that oppresses man from within. Mankind is weak and enslaved to sin and fleshly desires as explained by Paul in Romans 7 and 8.  The plagues represent God's wrath toward all that are sinfully opposed to God. The exodus experience represents the deliverance and redemption of God. Moses represents the Deliverer and Redeemer.  Christ is the fulfillment of this type.
The plagues were signs from God.  There were "strokes" against Pharaoh, the Egyptians, and their gods.  Pharaoh had resisted all the efforts of Moses to allow the captives to go.  The issue had to be forced.
The plagues were "signs and wonders":
Exodus 7:3 (KJV)
3 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt.
They were "judgments from God: 
Exodus 12:12 (KJV)
12 For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
The term "plague" is from the Hebrew word which means "stroke."  These were like strokes of a beating from an angry God, Who had seen enough of the persecution, mistreatment, and abuse against His people. The terrible plagues were not soon forgotten, they were remembered by Israel and the surrounding peoples for these many ages. 
Deuteronomy 4:34
"...or hath God assayed to go and take Him a nation from the midst of another nation, by temptations, by signs, and by wonders, and by war, and by a mighty hand, and by a stretched out arm, and by great terrors, according to all the Lord your God did for you in Egypt before your eyes?"
Deuteronomy 7:19
"The great temptations which thine eyes saw, and the signs, and the wonders and the mighty hand, and the stretched out arm, whereby the Lord thy God brought thee out, so shall the Lord the God do unto all the people of whom thou art afraid."
Joshua 24:5
"I sent Moses also and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt, according to that which I did among them, and afterward I brought you out."
In I Samuel 4:8, the Philistines said:
"woe unto us!  Who shall deliver us out of the hand of these mighty Gods? These are the Gods that smote the Egyptians with all the plagues in the wilderness."
Psalms 78:43-51
"How hath He wrought his signs in Egypt... turned their rivers into blood, and their floods, that they could not drink... sent divers sorts of flies among them... and frogs... the caterpillar ... the locust... hail, frost, thunderbolts... He cast upon them the fierceness of His anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, by sending evil angels among them... He hath made a way to His anger; He spared not their souls from death, but gave their life over to the pestilence; and smote all the firstborn of Egypt."
Anything that takes the place of God in our lives is an idol.  For some it is sports, work, money, vacation, family reunions, prestige, education.  People tend to think that "the Lord delayeth His coming" (Matthew 24:48) and to live as though they had much time to repent later.  They allow these things to have first place in their lives.  They allow the cares of this life, the materialism of success, and the pressures of the peers and family of this world to distract them from the Lord. 
In Numbers 25, the children of Israel are seen having immoral relationships with the Midianitish women.  They were dwelling too close to  world, and they tampered with sin. Many died from the plague caused by this sin.
When Moses had first read to them the commandments, they had said, "We will do it!"  Yet, when the testing times came, they failed, they sinned, and they were unfaithful to the God who had saved them.   Like many today, the unfaithfulness to the commands of the Lord, plagues many. God is very angered at the sins within His people. 
I Corinthians 10:9
"Neither let us tempt Christ."  
To "tempt" means to "test". They tempted God when they "spake against God, and against Moses." (Numbers 21:5)  They complained against the conditions, against the leadership of the Lord.  They looked about them for human leadership, but God wants to be our leader.  In the same way, the Lord is to be our leader, and when we seek guidance from other sources that Jesus, we are in grave danger. 
Jesus dwells within us, and has sent the Holy Spirit to speak His words to us. Why do we run to others for guidance. Surely the Lord places pastors, teachers, prophets, etc amidst us to aid, but their aid is supposed to be to help us find the answer in the Word of God, and from the Spirit of the Lord.  Too many "saints" are trying to make themselves to be lords. Too many want to rule the church, the church people. Too many are trying to replace Jesus as the shepherd of the flock.
When this happened in the Old Testament, the ones who opposed the leadership of the Lord were swallowed up by the earth.  At another time, the serpents came and bit them, causing pain, sickness, and death.  Another time, leprosy afflicted the one who opposed God's leadership.
Complaining about the way in which the Lord leads us will lead to rebellion.  When God sees that we are not satisfied with His leadership, because it may lead down stony paths, or take us to dry deserts, or make us stay in lonely valleys, He is angered.
Israel murmured almost constantly.  At one time, they said:
Numbers 14:12
"Would to God, that we would die in this wilderness."
God answered this prayer.  We need to beware of our murmuring, our words of despair, discouragement, and hopelessness. God may answer those prayers.  When Korah murmured, the earth swallowed him alive. When others murmured about what had happened to Korah, a plague followed.  A Christian today - who murmurs - is in danger of judgment also.
God provides for His people.  He has made provision for us, as He had for the people of the old covenant.
Exodus 13:21
"And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of  a cloud, and to lead them by the way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light, to go by day and night."
God wants to lead and guide His people.  God willingly offers us the Holy Spirit to guide us. When we listen to family, to friends, to others who want to be our shepherds, we will find problems.  When we stay sensitive tot he Spirit's guidance, when we risk all to follow wherever He leads, we will find victory.
Numbers 16:4
"Then said, the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go our and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in My law, or no."
Jesus is our manna, He is our Bread of Life.   We feed daily upon Him, or at least we should.  The Word says that the gift of manna was a test, to see if they would daily obey the Lord.  If we do not daily feed upon the Lord Jesus Christ, we are failing the test.  How hard is it to daily come to the spiritual table of blessing?  Yet, many saints do not, and spend days, many days sometimes, between spiritual feedings.

We may feed on this supply, or not.  We may choose to seek sustenance from others, from things, from man's praise, from family, from the applause of this world, but none of these truly satisfy.  Only the Lord Jesus will satisfy our spiritual hunger.
Exodus 17:6
"Thou shalt smite the ROCK, and there shall come out of it, that the people may drink." 
John 7:37-39
"If any man thirst, let him come unto Me and drink... He that believes on Me, as the Scriptures hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of  water. (But this spake He of the Spirit.)"
The Holy Spirit is offered to all saints, and yet many will neglect this wondrous gift of the Lord.  They wander about in thirst spiritually, and never are satisfied, refreshed, and rejuvenated by the Spirit. What a foolish neglect of many today.

In the center of the camp of the Israelites, was a place of sacrifice.  There at that tabernacle, were priests.  They offered to mediate the sacrifice for any who had sinned, or had special requests from God. 
God has an intercessory priesthood today for sinners.  We are all to be priests to God. 
I Peter 2:5,9
Ye also as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood... ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood."
Isaiah 61:6
"But ye shall be named the 'Priests of the Lord'."
We, as the priesthood, must be intercessors.  We should "pray for one another". It is not an easy vocation.  It is a ministry for a wandering, rebellious, murmuring, critical, cowardly, failing people. 
The priesthood of believers minister to a people much like the people to whom Moses and Aaron ministered. What a challenge! What a task!  Certainly we need the help of the Lord!

God expects a redeemed people to be a moral people. The Hebrew people did not follow that formula from God. God does not change His formula, if we refuse to obey. God will do His best to change our rebellion. 
God did not expect morality until He had redeemed the Hebrews, but once redeemed and delivered, He demanded a holy people.  Redemption comes first, and then morality is expected to follow. We are not saved by our morality, but are saved to morality.
With the giving of the ten commandments, God is establishing clearly that He is a moral, holy, righteous God.
Leviticus 11:45
"For I am the Lord Who brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God, you shall therefore be holy, for I am holy."
I Peter 1:16
"Because it is written, Be ye holy, for I am holy."
The commandments are ten in number:
Exodus 34:28
"And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water.  And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments."
Deuteronomy 4:13
"And He declared unto you His covenant, which He commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone."
The ten commandments are a summary of the basis of the whole law, in the same way, the two commandments of Jesus are a summary of the rules of Jesus.
Jesus taught them to forsake sin and rebellion.  The method that He used was marked by His simplification of the law, including the ten commandments.  He took all the laws of the Old Testament period and taught that if people would obey only two laws, they would please God.  There are some today in the religious world that still hold to that doctrine.  They will love God supremely, and love their neighbor as themselves. 
Jesus wanted us to take all rules and make them into only two.  The Pharisees took the many Old Testament laws and added many more.  They ended up with a religion that few could and would follow.  Jesus took their rules and disobeyed them whenever they interfered with the two laws that He had set forth. 
In Christianity today, there have been so many additions to the two commandments of Jesus that there is often church splits, backslidings, bickerings, factionalism, etc. All of these stem back to rules that people have added to the Word of God

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